The First Guru - Guru Nanak Dev ji (1469 - 1539)
Mehta Kalu and Mata Tripta Devi
April 15, 1469, Nankana Sahib
Sri chand and Lakhmi Das
Joti Jot :
On Monday 22 September, 1539 at Kartarpur
974 Shabads in 19 Ragas, Gurbani Includes Japji, Sidh Gohst, Sohilaa, Dakhni Onkar, Asa di Var, Patti, Bara Mah
• Guru Nanak
was born on 15 April 1469, now celebrated as Prakash Divas of Guru Nanak Dev
, into a Hindu Khatri family in the village of Rāi Bhōi dī Talwandī, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore, Pakistan. Today, his birthplace is marked by Gurdwara Janam Asthan. His father, Kalyan Chand Das Bedi, popularly shortened to Kalu Mehta
, was a patwari
(accountant) for crop revenue in the village of Talwandi, employed by of a Muslim landlord of that area, Rai Bular Bhatti. Guru Nanak’s mother was Tripta Devi.
He had one elder sister, Bibi Nanaki
who became a spiritual figure in her own right.
married Jai Ram
and went to his town of Sultanpur, where he was the steward (modi) to Daulat Khan Lodi, the eventual governor of Lahore. Guru Nanak was attached to his older sister, and, in traditional Indian fashion, he followed her to Sultanpur to live with her and her husband. Guru Nanak also found work with Daulat Khan, when he was around 16 years old. This was a formative time for Guru Nanak, as the Puratan Janam Sakhi suggests, and in his numerous allusions to
Cobra giving shadow
governmental structure in his hymns, most likely gained at this time.
• Commentaries on his life give details of his blossoming awareness from a young age. At the age of five, Guru Nanak
is said to have voiced interest in divine subjects. At age seven, his father, Kalu Mehta
, enrolled him at the village school as was the custom. Notable lore recounts that as a child Guru Nanak
astonished his teacher by describing the implicit symbolism of the first letter of the alphabet, which is an almost straight stroke in Persian or Arabic, resembling the mathematical version of one, as denoting the unity or oneness of God. Other childhood accounts refer to strange and miraculous events about Guru Nanak
witnessed by Rai Bular such as a poisonous cobra being seen to shield the sleeping child’s head from the harsh sunlight.
Sikhism and travels
• Rai Bular, the local landlord and Guru Nanak’s sister Bibi Nanaki
were the first people who recognised divine qualities in the boy. They encouraged and supported him to study and travel. Sikh tradition states that at around 1499, at the age of 30, he had a vision. After he failed to return from his ablutions, his clothes were found on the bank of a local stream called the Kali Bein. The townspeople assumed he had drowned in the river; Daulat Khan had the river dragged, but no
body was found. Three days after disappearing, Guru Nanak
reappeared, staying silent. The next day, he spoke to pronounce, "There is neither Hindu nor Mussulman (Muslim) so whose path shall I follow? I shall follow God's path. God is neither Hindu nor Mussulman and the path which I follow is God's." Guru Nanak
said that he had been taken to God's court. There, he was offered a cup filled with amrit (nectar) and given the command "This is the cup of the adoration of God's name. Drink it. I am with you. I bless you and raise you up. Whoever remembers you will enjoy my favour. Go, rejoice of my name and teach others to do so. I have bestowed the gift of my name upon you. Let this be your calling." From this point onwards, Nanak is described in accounts as a Guru, and Sikhism was born.
• Although the exact account of his itinerary is disputed, he is widely acknowledged to have made four major journeys, spanning thousands of kilometres, the first tour being east towards Bengal and Assam, the second south towards Tamil Nadu, the third north towards Kashmir, Ladakh, and Tibet, and the final tour west towards Baghdad, Mecca and Medina on the Arabian Peninsula.
• Guru Nanak
crossed into Arunachal Pradesh and visited most of the part. First while going to Lhasa (Tibet) he passed through Tawang after crossing from Bhutan and entered Tibet from Samdurang Chu. He returned from Lhasa and went to the famous monastery Samye and entered Pemoshubu Menchukha in Arunachal Pradesh. He meditated for some time at this location. From Menchukha he went back to Tibet, brought the residents of Southern Tibet and got them settled in Menchukha. Thereafter through Gelling and Tuiting he proceeded to Saidya and Braham-Kund, before entering the state of Assam again. Guru Nanak
is the founder of the Sikh religion.
• Guru Nanak
was married to Mata Sulakhni
at about 16 years of age. His marriage to her took place in the town of Batala. The marriage party had come from the town of Sultanpur Lodhi. The couple had two sons, Sri Chand and Lakhmi Chand.
appointed Bhai Lehna
as the successor Guru, renaming him as Guru Angad
, meaning "one’s very own" or "part of you". Shortly after proclaiming Bhai Lehna as his successor on 7 Sep 1539, Guru Nanak Dev
died after 15 days on 22 September 1539 in Kartarpur, at the age of 70 .
• Guru Nanak’s teachings can be found in the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib, as a vast collection of revelatory verses recorded in Gurmukhi.
From these some common principles seem discernible. Firstly a supreme Godhead who although incomprehensible, manifests in all major religions, the Singular "Doer" and formless. It is described as the indestructible (undying) form.
• Guru Nanak
describes the dangers of the Egotism (haumai- "I am") and calls upon devotees to engage in worship through the word of God (Naam, implies God, the Reality, mystical word or formula to recite or
Guru Nank Dev Ji
meditate upon (shabad in Gurbani), divine order (hukam) and at places divine teacher (guru) and guru’s instructions) and singing of God’s qualities, discarding doubt in the process. However, such worship must be selfless (sewa). The word of God, cleanses the individual to make such worship possible. This is related to the revelation that God is the Doer and without God there is no other. Guru Nanak
warned against hypocrisy and falsehood saying that these are pervasive in humanity and that religious actions can also be in vain. It may also be said that ascetic practices are disfavoured by Guru Nanak
who suggests remaining inwardly detached whilst living as a householder.
Through popular tradition, Guru Nanak
’s teaching is understood to be practised in three ways:
1 • Vaṇḍ Chakkō: Sharing with others, helping those with less who are in need
2 • Kirat Karō: Earning/making a living honestly, without exploitation or fraud
3 • Naam Japna: Chanting the Holy Name and thus remembering God at all times (ceaseless devotion to God)
• Guru Nanak
put the greatest emphasis on the worship of the Word of God (Naam Japna). One should follow the direction of awakened individuals (Gurmukh or God willed) rather than the mind (state of Manmukh- being led by Self will)- the latter being perilous and leading only to frustration.
Reforms that occurred in the institution and both Godhead and Devotion, are seen as transcending any religious consideration or divide, as God is not separate from any individual.
• Guru Nanak
was moved by the plight of the people of world and wanted to tell them about the "real message of God". The peoples of the world were confused by the conflicting message given by priests, pundits, qazis, mullahs, etc. He was determined to bring his message to the masses; so in 1499, he decided to set out on his sacred mission to spread the holy message of peace and compassion to all of mankind.
It is believed that Guru Nanak
is the second most travelled person in the world; most of his journeys were made on foot with his companion Bhai Mardana. He travelled in all four directions - North, East, West and South. The founder Sikh Guru is believed to have travelled more than 28,000 km in five major tours of the world during the period from 1500 to 1524. The record for the most travelled person is held by Ibn Battuta of Morocco.
• Guru Nanak
saw the world suffering out of hatred, fanaticism, falsehood and hypocrisy. The world had sunk in wickedness and sin. So he decided that he had to travel and educate and press home the message of Almighty Lord. So he set out in 1499 on his mission for the regeneration of humanity on this earth. He carried the torch of truth, heavenly love, peace and joy for mankind. For 1 year he spread his message of peace, compassion, righteousness and truth to the people in and around his home.
Guru Nanak's Divine Journeys
• Then in 1500, he embarked on his Divine Mission and went towards east, west, north and south and visited various centers of Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists, Jainis, Sufis, Yogis and Sidhas. He met people of different religions, tribes, cultures and races. He travelled on foot with his Muslim companion named Bhai Mardana, a minstrel. His travels are called Udasis. In his first Udasi (travel), Guru Nanak
covered east of India and returned home after spending about 6 years. He started from Sultanpur in 1500 and went to his village Talwandi to meet and inform his parents about his long journey. His parents wanted their young son to provide comfort and protection for them in their old age and so they told him they would prefer it if he did not go. But he told them that the world was burning in the fire of Kalyug and that thousands and thousands were waiting for the Divine message of the Almighty for comfort, love and salvation. The Guru, therefore, told his parents, "There is a call from Heaven, I must go whither He directs me to go." Upon hearing these words, his parents agreed and gave their blessings. So Guru Nanak
started his mission and the roots of Sikhism were laid down first towards the east of India.
• According to the Puratan Janamsakhi, which is one of the oldest accounts of the life history of Guru Nanak
, Guru Ji undertook five missionary journeys (udasiya) to the far away places of Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Mecca, Baghdad, Kamroop (Assam), Tashkand and many more. Guru ji travelled far and wide to spread the word of Gurbani
and covered most of India, present day Bangladesh, Pakistan, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, South West China, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan.
The five journeys
Below is a brief summary of the confirmed places where Guru Nanak
(1500-1506 AD) Sultanpur, Tulamba (modern Makhdumpur, zila Multan), Panipat, Delhi, Banaras (Varanasi), Nanakmata (zila Nainital, U.P.), Tanda Vanjara (zila Rampur), Kamrup (Assam), Asa Desh (Assam), Saidpur (modern Eminabad, Pakistan), Pasrur (Pakistan), Sialkot (Pakistan).
1 • First Udasi:
(1500-1506 AD) Lasted about 7 years and covered the following towns and regions: Sultanpur, Tulamba (modern Makhdumpur, zila Multan), Panipat, Delhi, Banaras (Varanasi), Nanakmata (zila Nainital, U.P.), Tanda Vanjara (zila Rampur), Kamrup (Assam), Asa Desh (Assam), Saidpur (modern Eminabad, Pakistan), Pasrur (Pakistan), Sialkot (Pakistan).
2 • Second Udasi:
(1506-1513 AD) Lasted about 7 years and covered the following towns and regions: Dhanasri Valley, Sangladip (Ceylon).
3 • Third Udasi:
(1514-1518 AD) Lasted about 5 years and covered the following towns and regions: Kashmir, Sumer Parbat, Nepal, Tashkand, Sikkim, Tibet.
4 • Fourth Udasi:
(1519-1521 AD) Lasted about 3 years and covered the following towns and regions: Mecca and the Arab countries.
5 • Fifth Udasi:
(1523-1524 AD) Lasted about 2 years and covered the following towns and regions: Places within the Punjab.
To spread his gospel, Gur Nanak ji traveled widely throughout Asia . To this end he undertook four Udasis (Tours). The first udasi (1500-1505) was to the central and eastern parts of India. Second udasi (1506-1509) took him to important towns and religious centers of south India, including Sri Lanka. During the third Udasi (1514-1516) Guru Nanak
traveled to the Gangetic plains, Bihar, Nepal, Lahsa, Leh, as far as Tashkand and then back to Punjab via the Kashmir valley. The fourth Udasi (1518-1521) took him to various Arab countries.